(Ad, please don’t block.)

In this chapter, we look at *polymorphic variants*, which are a more flexible version of normal variants. But that flexibility also makes them more complicated.

Polymorphic variants are similar to normal variants. The biggest difference is that constructors are not tied to types anymore; they exist independently. That makes polymorphic variants more versatile and leads to interesting consequences for the type system. Some of those consequences are negatives – they are the price you pay for the versatility.

Let’s start with the following normal variant and then turn it into a polymorphic variant.

`type rgb = Red | Green | Blue;`

The polymorphic version of `rgb`

is defined like this:

`type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];`

The constructors of a polymorphic variant must be wrapped in square brackets and their names must start with backticks followed by either lowercase letters or uppercase letters:

```
# `red;
- : [> `red ] = `red
# `Red;
- : [> `Red ] = `Red
```

As usual, types such as `rgb`

must start with lowercase letters.

You can only use a non-polymorphic constructor if it is part of a non-polymorphic variant:

```
# Int(123);
Error: Unbound constructor Int
# type data = Int(int) | Str(string);
type data = Int(int) | Str(string);
# Int(123);
- : data = Int(123)
```

In contrast, you can just use polymorphic constructors. There is no need to define them beforehand:

```
# `Int(123);
- : [> `Int(int) ] = `Int(123)
```

Note that ``Int(123)`

has an interesting type: `[> `Int(int) ]`

. We’ll examine what that means later.

Polymorphic constructors existing on their own, enables using the same constructor more than once:

```
type color = [`Red | `Orange | `Yellow | `Green | `Blue | `Purple];
type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
```

In contrast, with normal variants, you should avoid multiple variants within the same scope having the same constructor.

You can even use the same polymorphic constructor with different arities and/or type parameters:

```
# `Int("abc", true);
- : [> `Int((string, bool)) ] = `Int(("abc", true))
# `Int(1.0, 2.0, 3.0);
- : [> `Int((float, float, float)) ] = `Int((1., 2., 3.))
```

When defining a polymorphic variant, you can extend an existing variant. In the following example, `color`

extends `rgb`

:

```
type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
type color = [rgb | `Orange | `Yellow | `Purple];
```

As you can see, case matters here: `rgb`

being lowercased indicates that its constructors are inserted.

Extending multiple variants is also possible:

```
type red = [ `Red ];
type green = [ `Green ];
type blue = [ `Blue ];
type rgb = [ red | green | blue ];
```

The names of non-polymorphic constructors are part of their scopes (e.g. their modules), whereas the namespace of polymorphic constructors is global. You can see that in the following example:

```
module M = {
type data = [`Int(int) | `Str(string)];
let stringOfData = (x: data) =>
switch x {
| `Int(i) => string_of_int(i)
| `Str(s) => s
};
};
M.stringOfData(`Int(123));
```

In the last line, the parameter of `M.stringOfData()`

is created via a constructor that is not from `M`

’s scope. Due to the global namespace of polymorphic constructors, the parameter is compatible with the type `data`

.

How does ReasonML determine if the type of an actual parameter (function call) is compatible with the type of the formal parameter (function definition)? Let’s look at examples. We start by creating a type and a function whose single parameter is of that type.

```
# type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
type rgb = [ `Blue | `Green | `Red ];
# let id = (x: rgb) => x;
let id: (rgb) => rgb = <fun>;
```

Next, we create a new type `rgb2`

that has the same polymorphic constructors as `rgb`

and call `id()`

with a value whose type is `rgb2`

:

```
# type rgb2 = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
type rgb2 = [ `Blue | `Green | `Red ];
# let arg: rgb2 = `Blue;
let arg: rgb2 = `Blue;
# id(arg);
- : rgb = `Blue
```

Normally, the type of the formal parameter `x`

and the actual parameter `arg`

have to be the same. But with polymorphic variants, it’s enough if your types have the same constructors.

If, however, the type of an actual parameter `arg2`

has less constructors, then ReasonML won’t let you do the function call:

```
# type rg = [`Red | `Green];
type rg = [ `Green | `Red ];
# let arg2: rg = `Red;
let arg2: rg = `Red;
# id(arg2);
Error: This expression has type rg but an expression was expected of type rgb
The first variant type does not allow tag(s) `Blue
```

The reason is that `id`

makes precise demands on what it needs: *exactly* the constructors ``Red`

, ``Green`

and ``Blue`

. Therefore, the type `rg`

is not enough.

Interestingly, the following does work:

```
# type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
type rgb = [ `Blue | `Green | `Red ];
# let id = (x: rgb) => x;
let id: (rgb) => rgb = <fun>;
# let arg3 = `Red;
let arg3: [> `Red ] = `Red;
# id(arg3);
- : rgb = `Red
```

Why? Because ReasonML didn’t infer a fixed type for `arg3`

, it inferred the *type constraint* `[> `Red ]`

. This constraint is a so-called *lower bound* and means: “all types that have at least the constructor ``Red`

”. This constraint is compatible with `rgb`

, the type of `x`

.

We can also use constraints as the types of parameters. For example, the following call to `id()`

fails, because the parameter’s type, `rgbw`

, has too many constructors:

```
# type rgbw = [`Red | `Green | `Blue | `White ];
type rgbw = [ `Blue | `Green | `Red | `White ];
# id(`Red: rgbw);
Error: This expression has type rgbw but an expression was expected of type rgb
The second variant type does not allow tag(s) `White
```

This time, we call `id()`

and specify the type `rgbw`

of the parameter directly (no intermediate `let`

binding). We can make the function call work without changing the function call, by only changing `id()`

:

```
# let id = (x: [> `Red | `Green | `Blue]) => x;
let id: (([> `Blue | `Green | `Red ] as 'a)) => 'a = <fun>;
# id(`Red: rgbw); /* same as before */
- : rgbw = `Red
```

Now `x`

has a lower bound and accepts all types that have at least the given three constructors.

You can also define constraints by referring to variants. For example, the following definition of `id()`

is basically equivalent to the previous one.

`let id = (x: [> rgb]) => x;`

We’ll take a deeper look at type constraints later on.

One key benefit of polymorphic variants is that code becomes more extensible.

As an example, take the following type definitions for shapes. They are polymorphic versions of the example in the chapter on variants.

```
type point = [ `Point(float, float) ];
type shape = [
| `Rectangle(point, point)
| `Circle(point, float)
];
```

Based on these type definitions, we can write a function that computes the area of a shape:

```
let pi = 4.0 *. atan(1.0);
let computeArea = (s: shape) =>
switch s {
| `Rectangle(`Point(x1, y1), `Point(x2, y2)) =>
let width = abs_float(x2 -. x1);
let height = abs_float(y2 -. y1);
width *. height;
| `Circle(_, radius) => pi *. (radius ** 2.0)
};
```

`shape`

: a failing first attemptLet’s say we want to extend `shape`

with one more shape – triangles. How would we do that? We can simply define a new type `shapePlus`

that reuses the existing polymorphic constructors `Rectangle`

and `Circle`

, and adds the constructor `Triangle`

:

```
type shapePlus = [
| `Rectangle(point, point)
| `Circle(point, float)
| `Triangle(point, point, point)
];
```

Now we also need to extend `computeArea()`

. The following function is our first attempt at writing that extension:

```
let shoelaceFormula = (`Point(x1, y1), `Point(x2, y2), `Point(x3, y3)) =>
0.5 *. abs_float(x1*.y2 -. x3*.y2 +. x3*.y1 -. x1*.y3 +. x2*.y3 -. x2*.y1);
let computeAreaPlus = (sp: shapePlus) =>
switch sp {
| `Triangle(p1, p2, p3) => shoelaceFormula(p1, p2, p3)
| `Rectangle(_, _) => computeArea(sp) /* A */
| `Circle(_, _) => computeArea(sp) /* B */
};
```

Alas, this code doesn’t work: In lines A and B, `sp`

’s type `shapePlus`

is not compatible with the type `shape`

of `computeArea`

’s parameter. We get the following error message:

```
Error: This expression has type shapePlus
but an expression was expected of type shape
The second variant type does not allow tag(s) `Triangle
```

`computeAreaPlus`

via an `as`

clauseThankfully, we can fix the problem by using the `as`

clause for the last two cases:

```
let computeAreaPlus = (sp: shapePlus) =>
switch sp {
| `Triangle(p1, p2, p3) => shoelaceFormula(p1, p2, p3)
| `Rectangle(_, _) as r => computeArea(r)
| `Circle(_, _) as c => computeArea(c)
};
```

How does `as`

help us? With polymorphic variants, it picks the most general type possible. That is:

`r`

has the type`[> `Rectangle(point, point)]`

`c`

has the type`[> `Circle(point, float)]`

Both of these types are compatible with `shape`

, the type of `computeArea`

’s parameter.

There is one more improvement that we can make. At the moment, we mention each constructor of type `shape`

:

```
| `Rectangle(_, _) as r => computeArea(r)
| `Circle(_, _) as c => computeArea(c)
```

This is unnecessarily redundant; even more so with larger types. Therefore, ReasonML provides us with an abbreviation:

`| #shape as s => computeArea(s)`

This covers all constructors of `shape`

.

In general, whenever you have a variant such as the following one:

`type myvariant = [`C1(t1) | `C2(t2)];`

Then you can use this pattern:

`#myvariant`

It is an abbreviation for:

`(`C1(_: t1) | `C2(_: t2))`

In other words, `#myvariant`

matches all values of type `[< myvariant]`

.

With `#shape`

, our code looks as follows:

```
let computeAreaPlus = (sp: shapePlus) =>
switch sp {
| `Triangle(p1, p2, p3) => shoelaceFormula(p1, p2, p3)
| #shape as s => computeArea(s)
};
```

Let’s use `computeAreaPlus()`

with two shapes:

```
let top = `Point(3.0, 5.0);
let left = `Point(0.0, 0.0);
let right = `Point(3.0, 0.0);
let circ = `Circle(top, 3.0);
let tri = `Triangle(top, left, right);
computeAreaPlus(circ); /* 28.274333882308138 */
computeAreaPlus(tri); /* 7.5 */
```

We have therefore successfully extended both the type `shape`

and the function `computeArea()`

operating on it.

In general, you should prefer normal variants over polymorphic variants, because they are slightly more efficient and enable stricter type checking. Quoting the OCaml manual:

[…] polymorphic variants, while being type-safe, result in a weaker type discipline. That is, core language variants do actually much more than ensuring type-safety, they also check that you use only declared constructors, that all constructors present in a data-structure are compatible, and they enforce typing constraints to their parameters.

However, polymorphic variants have a few clear strengths. If any of those matter in a given situation, you should use polymorphic variants:

Reuse: A constructor (possibly along with code processing it) is useful for more than one variant. Constructors for colors fall into this category, for example.

Decoupling: A constructor is used in multiple locations, but you don’t want those locations to depend on a single module where the constructor is defined. Instead, you can simply use the constructor without defining it.

Extensibility: You expect a variant to be extended later on. Similar to how

`shapePlus`

was an extension of`shape`

, earlier in this chapter.Conciseness: Due to the global namespace of polymorphic constructors, you can use them without qualifying them or opening their modules (see next subsection).

Use constructors without prior definitions: You can use polymorphic constructors without defining them beforehand via variants. That is occasionally convenient for throw-away types that are only used in single locations.

Thankfully, it is relatively easy to move to a polymorphic variant from a normal variant if the need arises.

Let’s compare the conciseness of normal variants and polymorphic variants.

For the normal variant `bwNormal`

, you need to qualify `Black`

in line A (or open its module):

```
module MyModule = {
type bwNormal = Black | White;
let getNameNormal = (bw: bwNormal) =>
switch bw {
| Black => "Black"
| White => "White"
};
};
print_string(MyModule.getNameNormal(MyModule.Black)); /* A */
/* "Black" */
```

For the polymorphic variant `bwPoly`

, no qualification is necessary for ``Black`

in line A:

```
module MyModule = {
type bwPoly = [ `Black | `White ];
let getNamePoly = (bw: bwPoly) =>
switch bw {
| `Black => "Black"
| `White => "White"
};
};
print_string(MyModule.getNamePoly(`Black)); /* A */
/* "Black" */
```

Not having to qualify didn’t really have much of an effect in this example, but it matters if you use the constructors many times.

One issue with polymorphic variants is that you get less warnings about typos, because you can use constructors without defining them. For example, in the following code, ``Green`

is misspelled as ``Gren`

in line A:

```
type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
let f = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Red => "Red"
| `Gren => "Green" /* A */
| `Blue => "Blue"
};
/* let f: ([< `Blue | `Gren | `Red ]) => string = <fun>; */
```

You do get a warning if you add a type annotation for the parameter `x`

:

```
let f = (x: rgb) =>
switch x {
| `Red => "Red"
| `Gren => "Green"
| `Blue => "Blue"
};
/*
Error: This pattern matches values of type [? `Gren ]
but a pattern was expected which matches values of type rgb
The second variant type does not allow tag(s) `Gren
*/
```

If you return polymorphic variant values from a function, you can specify the return type of that function, too. But that also adds weight to your code, so be sure you really benefit. If you type all parameters, many if not most problems should be caught.

All of the following sections cover advanced topics.

Before we can take a closer look at constraints for polymorphic variants, we first need to understand general constraints for type variables (of which the former is a special case).

At the end of a type definition, there can be one or more *type constraints*. These have the following syntax:

`constraint «typeexpr» = «typeexpr»`

These constraints are used to *refine* the type variables in the preceding type definition. This is a simple example:

`type t('a) = 'a constraint 'a=int;`

How does ReasonML handle constraints? Before we can look into that, let’s first understand *unification* and how it builds on pattern matching.

Pattern matching goes in one direction: One term without variables is used to fill in the variables in another term. In the following example, ``Int(123)`

is the term without variables and ``Int(x)`

is the term with variables:

```
switch(`Int(123)) {
| `Int(x) => print_int(x)
}
```

*Unification* is pattern matching that works in both directions: both terms can have variables, and variables on both sides are filled in. As an example, consider:

```
# type t('a, 'b) = ('a, 'b) constraint ('a, int) = (bool, 'b);
type t('a, 'b) = ('a, 'b) constraint 'a = bool constraint 'b = int;
```

ReasonML simplified as much as possible: the original complex constraint with variables on both sides of the equals sign was converted to two simple constraints with variables only on the left-hand sides.

This is an example where things can be simplified so much that no constraint is needed, anymore:

```
# type t('a, 'b) = 'c constraint 'c = ('a, 'b);
type t('a, 'b) = ('a, 'b);
```

The type constraints we have seen earlier in this chapter are actually just type constraints that are specific to polymorphic variants.

For example, the following two expressions are equivalent:

```
let x: [> `Red ] = `Red;
let x: [> `Red] as 'a = `Red;
```

On the other hand, the following two type expressions are also equivalent (but you can’t use `constraint`

in `let`

bindings and parameter definitions):

```
[> `Red] as 'a
'a constraint 'a = [> `Red ]
```

That is, with all the polymorphic variant constraints that we have used so far, there was always an implicit (hidden) type variable. We can see that if we try to use such a constraint to define a type `t`

:

```
# type t = [> `Red ];
Error: A type variable is unbound in this type declaration.
In type [> `Red ] as 'a the variable 'a is unbound
```

We fix this as follows. Note the final type computed by ReasonML.

```
# type t('a) = [> `Red] as 'a;
type t('a) = 'a constraint 'a = [> `Red ];
```

For the remainder of this chapter, we refer to *type constraints for polymorphic variants* as simply *type constraints* or *constraints*.

Type constraints consist of either or both of the following:

A lower bound: indicates what elements a type must contain at least. For example:

`[> `Red | `Green]`

accepts all types that include the constructors``Red`

and``Green`

. In other words: taken as a set, the constraint accepts all types that are supersets of it.An upper bound: indicates what elements a type must contain at most. For example:

`[< `Red | `Green]`

accepts the following types:`[`Red | `Green]`

,`[`Red]`

,`[`Green]`

.

You can use type constraints for:

- Type definitions
`let`

bindings- Parameter definitions

For the latter two, you must use the short form (without `constraint`

).

Let’s examine how the lower bound `[> `Red | `Green]`

works by using it as the type of a function parameter `x`

:

`let lower = (x: [> `Red | `Green]) => true;`

Values of type `[`Red | `Green | `Blue]`

and `[`Red | `Green]`

are accepted:

```
# lower(`Red: [`Red | `Green | `Blue]);
- : bool = true
# lower(`Red: [`Red | `Green]);
- : bool = true
```

However, values of type `[`Red]`

are not accepted, because that type doesn’t contain both of the constructors of the constraint.

```
# lower(`Red: [`Red]);
Error: This expression has type [ `Red ]
but an expression was expected of type [> `Green | `Red ]
The first variant type does not allow tag(s) `Green
```

The following interaction experiments with the upper bound `[< `Red | `Green]`

:

```
# let upper = (x: [< `Red | `Green]) => true;
let upper: ([< `Green | `Red ]) => bool = <fun>;
# upper(`Red: [`Red | `Green]); /* OK */
- : bool = true
# upper(`Red: [`Red]); /* OK */
- : bool = true
# upper(`Red: [`Red | `Green | `Blue]);
Error: This expression has type [ `Blue | `Green | `Red ]
but an expression was expected of type [< `Green | `Red ]
The second variant type does not allow tag(s) `Blue
```

If you use polymorphic constructors, ReasonML infers type constraints for you. Let’s look at a few examples.

```
# `Int(3);
- : [> `Int(int) ] = `Int(3)
```

The value ``Int(3)`

has the inferred type `[> `Int(int) ]`

which is compatible with all types that have at least the constructor ``Int(int)`

.

With a tuple, you get two separate inferred type constraints:

```
# (`Red, `Green);
- : ([> `Red ], [> `Green ]) = (`Red, `Green)
```

On the other hand, the elements of a list must all have the same type, which is why the two inferred constraints are merged:

```
# [`Red, `Green];
- : list([> `Green | `Red ]) = [`Red, `Green]
```

This list is accepted whenever the expected type is a list with elements whose type includes at least the constructors ``Red`

and ``Green`

.

If you try to use the same constructor with parameters of different types, you get an error, because ReasonML can’t merge the two inferred types:

```
# [`Int(3), `Int("abc")];
Error: This expression has type string but
an expression was expected of type int
```

So far, we have only seen lower bounds being inferred. In the following example, ReasonML infers an upper bound for the parameter `x`

:

```
let f = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Red => 1
| `Green => 2
};
/* let f: ([< `Green | `Red ]) => int = <fun>; */
```

Due to the `switch`

expression, `f`

can handle at most the two constructors ``Red`

and ``Green`

.

The inferred type becomes more complex if `f`

returns its parameter:

```
let f = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Red => x
| `Green => x
};
/* let f: (([< `Green | `Red ] as 'a)) => 'a = <fun>; */
```

The type parameter `'a`

is used to express that the type of the parameter and the type of the result are the same.

Things change if we use `as`

clauses, because they decouple the input type from the output type:

```
let f = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Red as r => r
| `Green as g => g
};
/* let f: ([< `Green | `Red ]) => [> `Green | `Red ] = <fun>; */
```

Some things go beyond the capabilities of ReasonML’s type system:

```
let f = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Red => x
| `Green => `Blue
};
/*
Error: This expression has type [> `Blue ]
but an expression was expected of type [< `Green | `Red ]
The second variant type does not allow tag(s) `Blue
*/
```

The return type of `f`

is: “the type of `x`

or the type `[> `Blue]`

”. However, there is no way to express that via a constraint.

Type constraints can become quite complex. Let’s start with two simple functions:

```
let even1 = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Data(n) => (n mod 2) == 0
};
/* let even1: ([< `Data(int) ]) => bool = <fun>; */
let even2 = (x) =>
switch x {
| `Data(s) => (String.length(s) mod 2) == 0
};
/* let even2: ([< `Data(string) ]) => bool = <fun>; */
```

Both inferred types include upper bounds, caused by `switch`

statements.

Let’s use the same variable `x`

as a parameter for both functions:

```
let even = (x) => even1(x) && even2(x);
/* let even: ([< `Data(string & int) ]) => bool = <fun>; */
```

To type `x`

, ReasonML merges the following two types:

```
[< `Data(int) ]
[< `Data(string) ]
```

The result contains the following constructor.

``Data(string & int)`

That stands for “a constructor ``Data`

” whose type parameter has both type `string`

and type `int`

. Such a constructor doesn’t exist, meaning that you can’t call `even()`

, because there is no value that is compatible with the type of its parameter.

When ReasonML computes types via inference, and determines that two types `t1`

, `t2`

must be equal (e.g. the type of an actual parameter and the type of a formal parameter), it uses unification to solve the equation `t1 = t2`

.

I’ll demonstrate that via several functions. Each of those functions returns its only parameter. The type `tp`

it specifies for the parameter is different from the type `tr`

it specifies for the result. ReasonML will try to unify `tp`

and `tr`

, allowing us to observe that unification is bi-directional.

If both parameter type and result type are constraints, ReasonML tries to merge the constraints.

```
# let f = (x: [>`Red]): [< `Red | `Green] => x;
let f: (([< `Green | `Red > `Red ] as 'a)) => 'a = <fun>;
# let f = (x: [>`Red]): [> `Red | `Green] => x;
let f: (([> `Green | `Red ] as 'a)) => 'a = <fun>;
```

The unified type remains polymorphic – it contains the type variable `'a`

. The type variable is used to express: “whatever the type of `x`

eventually is, the result has the same type”.

If one of the two types is monomorphic (has no type variables) and the other one a constraint then the constraint is only used to check the monomorphic type. Due to unification, both types end up being monomorphic.

```
# let f = (x: [>`Red]): [`Red | `Green] => x;
let f: ([ `Green | `Red ]) => [ `Green | `Red ] = <fun>;
# let f = (x: [`Red]): [< `Red | `Green] => x;
let f: ([ `Red ]) => [ `Red ] = <fun>;
```

If both types are monomorphic then they must have the same constructors.

```
# let f = (x: [`Red]): [`Red | `Green] => x;
Error: This expression has type [ `Red ]
but an expression was expected of type [ `Green | `Red ]
The first variant type does not allow tag(s) `Green
# let f = (x: [`Red | `Green]): [`Red | `Green] => x;
let f: ([ `Green | `Red ]) => [ `Green | `Red ] = <fun>;
```

One more demonstration of the difference between monomorphic type and constraint. Consider the following two functions:

```
type rgb = [`Red | `Green | `Blue];
let id1 = (x: rgb) => x;
/* let id1: (rgb) => rgb = <fun>; */
let id2 = (x:[>rgb]) => x;
/* let id2: (([> rgb ] as 'a)) => 'a = <fun>; */
```

Let’s compare the two functions:

`id1()`

has a parameter whose type`rgb`

is monomorphic (it has no type variables).`id2()`

has a parameter whose type`[>rgb]`

is a constraint. The definition itself doesn’t look polymorphic, but the computed signature does – there is now a type variable,`'a`

.

Let’s see what happens if we call these functions with arguments whose type is a new polymorphic variant that has the same constructors as `rgb`

:

`type c3 = [ `Blue | `Green | `Red ];`

With `id1()`

, the type of `x`

, and therefore the result, is fixed. That is, it stays `rgb`

:

```
# id1(`Red: c3);
- : rgb = `Red
```

We were only able to call `id1()`

, because `rgb`

and `c3`

are the same.

In contrast, with `id2()`

, the type of `x`

is polymorphic and more flexible. During unification, `'a`

is bound to `c3`

. The result of the function call has type `c3`

(the value of `'a`

).

```
# id2(`Red: c3);
- : c3 = `Red
```

Polymorphic variants and how to use them:

- Sect. “Polymorphic variants” in the OCaml manual.
- Daniel Bünzli’s tips for when to use polymorphic variants (on Stack Overflow)
- “Code reuse through polymorphic variants” by Jacques Garrigue (2000).

Type variable constraints:

- What can be done with the “constraint” keyword in OCaml? (on Stack Overflow)
- Why does the constraint clause exist in type definitions? (on reddit)
- Chapter “Polymorphic Variants” in “OCaml Book” by Hongbo Zhang
- Sect. “Type definitions” in the OCaml manual.

The semantics of polymorphic variants:

- Simple Type Inference for Structural Polymorphism [PDF] by Jacques Garrigue (2002).
- Row polymorphism [PDF] by Leo White (2015).